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2009/01/03

[图说]好莱坞六大电影公司标识背后的故事

    在欣赏好莱坞影片时,你首先看到的也是出现在片头的摄制这部影片的电影公司的标识,比如,梦工厂那个坐在月亮上垂钓的男孩,米高梅的雄狮,华纳兄弟标有WB字样的盾牌等。但你知道隐藏在这些标识背后的故事吗?梦工厂影业公司标识中那个坐在月亮上垂钓的男孩到底是谁?派拉蒙影业公司标识中的那座雄山原型究竟位于何方?哥伦比亚影业公司标识中手持火炬的女人又是何方神圣?

 

1. 梦工厂标识:坐在月亮上垂钓的男孩

梦工厂当前的标识

    1994年,导演史蒂文斯皮尔伯格、迪斯尼影业公司主席杰弗里卡森伯格和唱片制作人大卫格芬联手创建了一家新的电影公司,取名为"梦工厂";这家新公司最初的标识也是出自3个人之手。斯皮尔伯格希望,梦工厂的标识能够让人们回想起好莱坞的黄金时代。最初的时候,他们打算将一幅展示一个在月亮上垂钓的男人的电脑合成图片作为梦工厂标识,但动画设计公司"工业光魔"Industrial Light Magic)的视效总监、曾参与斯皮尔伯格多部影片创作的丹尼斯穆伦认为,手绘标识可能是更为理想的选择。

亨特和儿子威廉

    在这一建议被采纳之后,穆伦便请好友――画家罗伯特亨特帮忙,为梦工厂创作标识。有意思的是,亨特一口气创作了两个标识,其中一个是按梦工厂的要求创作的,另一个则展示的是一个坐在月牙儿上垂钓的男孩。斯皮尔伯格显然对垂钓男孩情有独钟并最终一锤定音,而余下的那个标识则成为历史。这个男孩究竟是谁,很多读者可能已经猜到答案,他就是亨特的儿子威廉。

    我们当前在影片中看到的梦工厂标识是"工业光魔"在亨特画作基础上创作的。参与此次标识创作的还有万花筒影业公司的设计师(负责设计最初的故事板)、"工业光魔"总监戴夫卡森和制作人克林特戈德曼。

 

2:米高梅影业公司标识:雄狮利奥

图片11916年至1924年的高德温标识――最初的"雄狮利奥"斯拉特斯

图片2:米高梅的第一个正式标识――斯拉特斯,使用时间为1924年至1928

图片3:第2只狮子杰基,1928年至1956"服役"

图片4:第3只狮子坦纳,使用时间为1934年至1956

图片5:第4只没有名字的狮子,1956年到1958年间"服役"

图片6:真正的雄狮利奥,"服役期"1957年一直到现在

    1924年,电影公司宣传人员霍华德迪斯为塞缪尔高德温的高德温影业公司设计了"雄狮利奥"标识。他的创作灵感来源于母校哥伦比亚大学的体育队――雄狮队。几年之后,高德温影业公司与米特罗影业公司以及路易斯梅耶影业公司合并,组建一家新公司,也就是现在的米高梅,并保留了雄狮利奥这个标识。

    自此之后,共有5头狮子扮演"利奥"这个角色:最初的狮子名叫"斯拉特斯""统领"米高梅1924年至1928年的无声影片;第2头狮子名叫"杰基",是米高梅"雄狮军团"中第一个被观众听到怒吼声的成员。由于仍处在默片时代,当雄狮利奥的标识在大银幕上出现时,相关人员会用留声机播放杰基的咆哮。值得一提的是,杰基也是在1932年染印法彩色影片中出现的第一头狮子;第3头狮子名叫"坦纳",可能也是知名度最高的――当时杰基仍然出现在米高梅的黑白片中;第4头狮子没有名字,鬃毛非常浓密,但被使用的时间也非常短暂;第5头狮子就是自1957年以来一直延续至今的真正意义上的利奥。

    米高梅的座右铭是"为艺术而艺术"

 

3. 20世纪福克斯公司标识:探照灯加公司名称

    1935年,20世纪影业公司与福克斯影业公司(当时主要是一家影院连锁公司)合并成一家新公司――20世纪-福克斯影业公司(连字符随后被取消)。最初的20世纪标识是1933年由著名山水画家小埃米尔科萨创作的。合并之后,科萨用"Fox"替换"Pictures, Inc.",便形成现在的标识。除了这个标识外,1968年影片《决战猩球》末尾处出现的坍塌的自由女神像的绘景也是出自他的手笔。值得一提的是,20世纪福克斯影片的开场序曲《20th Century Fanfare》与标识的知名度也是不分伯仲,这首序曲由阿尔弗雷德纽曼创作,他后来成为联公司的音乐总监。

 

4. 派拉蒙标识:雄山

    1912年,阿多夫佐科尔与影院巨头丹尼尔弗罗曼和查尔斯弗罗曼兄弟联手创建了Famous Players电影公司,也就是派拉蒙影业公司的前身。派拉蒙的雄山标识最初不过是W.W.赫德金森与佐科尔会面时的涂鸦之作,雄山的原型是他小时候生活过的犹他州的本罗蒙德山(后来的实景标识可能是秘鲁的阿特森拉杰)。派拉蒙的雄山是好莱坞电影公司标识中历史最为悠久的。最初的标识共有24颗星,象征派拉蒙当时的24名签约明星,现在的星数为22颗,但没有人知道他们为什么减少星数。此外,最初的绘景也被电脑合成的山峰和星星所取代。

图片11914年至1952年使用的第1个雄山标识

图片219521954年使用的第2个雄山标识,山体盘旋曲折

图片319541967年使用的第3个雄山标识,选用的是深景版

图片119681975年使用的第4个雄山标识

图片219751987年使用的第5个雄山标识,主打蓝色

图片319872002年使用的第6个雄山标识,使用了电脑影像合成技术

图片:2002至今使用的第7个雄山标识

 

5. 华纳兄弟影业公司标识:标有WB字样的盾牌

图片119231929年使用的第1个盾牌标识――"Brain Shield"(直译为大脑盾牌)

图片219291936年使用的第2个盾牌标识――"Vitaphone Shield"(直译为维他风盾牌)

图片319361937年使用的第3个标识――"放大的盾牌"

图片119371948年使用的第4个标识――"WB盾牌"

图片219481967年使用的第5个标识―― "经典盾牌"

图片319671970年使用的第6个标识――"WB-7"

图片119701972年使用的第7个标识――"金尼盾牌"Kinney Shield

图片21972年使用的第8个标识――"WCI盾牌"

图片319721984年使用的第9个标识――"W"

图片119841998年使用的第10个标识――"盾牌归来"

图片21998年至今使用的第11个盾牌标识,采用了电脑影像合成技术

    华纳兄弟影业公司是由波兰移民――哈里华纳、阿尔伯特华纳、山姆华纳和杰克华纳这4个犹太人兄弟创建的。实际上,他们出生时并不叫这些名字:哈里原名叫"赫斯兹";阿尔伯特原名叫"亚伦";山姆原名为"斯穆尔";杰克原名叫"伊特扎克"。在改成"华纳"前,他们最初姓什么现在也已成为一个谜,一些人认为是"温萨尔""温斯科拉瑟尔"或者"艾克尔鲍姆"

    最初的时候,华纳兄弟在吸引优秀演艺人才方面陷入困境。1925年,在山姆的力劝下,华纳兄弟拍摄了第一批有声长片。据说,在听到山姆的建议时,哈里曾问到:"有谁愿意听演员们开口说话吗?"现在看来,哈里的顾虑显然是多余的。有声长片的推出了产生了"滚雪球"效应,大大提升了华纳兄弟的知名度。随着时间的迁移,华纳兄弟的标识WB盾牌曾多次经历修改。

 

6. 哥伦比亚标识:手持火炬的女人

    1919年,哈里考恩、杰克考恩两兄弟与乔布兰迪共同创建了考恩-布兰迪-考恩电影公司,也就是哥伦比亚影业公司的前身。"考恩-布兰迪-考恩"的很多早期作品都是低成本影片,被人形象地称之为"咸牛肉加卷心菜"1924年,考恩兄弟买下了布兰迪的全部股份,将公司更名为哥伦比亚影业公司,用以提高自身形象。

    "手持火炬的女人"这个标识是1924年设计的,但这位女模特的真实身份从没有得到证实,虽然有10多名女性声称就是标识中的"火炬女郎"。在<span sty

在电影院很舒淇的沙发里落座,几分钟的广告过后,《非诚勿扰》向你走来。但你首先看到的是银幕上飞出一条龙。对了,那是中影的标识。

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